Published Date: 2002-06-07 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Africa (Southern)
Archive Number: 20020607.4431
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - AFRICA (SOUTHERN)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail, a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Wed, 05 Jun 2002 12:35:38 -0400
From: Rashid Chotani <email@example.com>
Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in the SADC region
There is some growing concern over the deterioration of the FMD situation in
the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, with outbreaks
occurring in several countries. Unless the disease is brought under control,
it will keep threatening the economy of exporting countries that are already
facing a humanitarian crisis.
A summary of the current situation (as of 31 May 2002) follows:
Botswana: first reported FMD 14 Feb 2002 and identified the FMD SAT2
serotype. There have been no new outbreaks since then, and the country is
now in a position to be declared provisionally [FMD-]free as of 20 May 2002.
Clinical and serological surveillance will continue in the surveillance zone
for the next 3 months. Among the control measures put in place are intensive
surveillance, clinical inspection, collection of serum samples, and
slaughter of infected animals. A total of 12 197 cattle have been destroyed.
131 pigs belonging to 3 farms in the infected zone were also destroyed as a
precautionary measure. Quarantine and movement restrictions are still in
place. In wildlife, surveillance is nearly complete. A total of 56 impala
(_Aepyceros melampus_) and 5 kudu (_Tragelaphus_ sp.) were captured and
clinically inspected. No FMD lesions were found. Serum and probang samples
were taken and sent to the laboratory for testing.
Malawi: No FMD reports have been received, but national authorities are
aware of the situation and are taking steps to prevent FMD introduction.
South Africa: FMD was last reported in the area near Krugger National Park
with FMD Virus SAT 2 in February 2001. As a routine, cattle and stock in the
controlled area adjoining the Kruger Park are normally vaccinated twice a
year against FMD.
Swaziland: The last FMD outbreak was reported at the beginning of 2001.
Zambia: FMD is suspected in Zambia in Njelwa (Mbala district). Mbala
district has experienced outbreaks of foot & mouth disease in the past
(March 2000 was the last time there was an outbreak in Mbala/Mpulungu area).
Control measures in place are quarantine and movement control inside the
country. By the end of May 2002, a total of 69 new cases have been reported
in the same area. There have been no deaths so far. The laboratory results
are not yet available.
Zimbabwe: FMD SAT2 serotype was first detected on 16 Aug 2001 in Zimbabwe in
a cattle feedlot in the southwestern part of the country. It was further
diagnosed in 18 locations between the beginning of the outbreak and the 22
Oct 2001, affecting the provinces of Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South,
and Masvingo. Although the disease was brought under control through a
vaccination campaign, it broke out again lately in April 2002, in a
previously infected area (Mtetengwe Communal Area, Beitbridge district).
NB: Please note that a meeting on the Humanitarian Needs in Southern Africa
will be organized by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Working Group
(IASC-WG). The meeting will be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, 6-7 Jun
2002 and will gather the main stakeholders of humanitarian action in the
Rashid A. Chotani, MD, MPH
Global Infectious Disease Surveillance & Alert System
Johns Hopkins University