Published Date: 2004-03-23 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH> Avian influenza, poultry vaccines (07)
Archive Number: 20040323.0815
AVIAN INFLUENZA, POULTRY VACCINES (07)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: 22 Mar 2004
From: Andrew Turner <email@example.com>
I believe that what the Chinese are doing is using the inactivated H5N2
vaccine as they have done for some 5 or 6 years.
The H5N1 fowl pox vaccine will be [produced by] taking the H5 gene from
H5N1 outbreak virus and inserting it into fowlpox virus (as David Swayne
did in the USA in 1997) and using it as a live fowlpox/AI vaccine, as has
been used in Mexico since 1997.
[In our posting (20040318.0759) we requested information on Avian influenza
vaccines in China, including the following 2 new vaccines announced on 16
Mar 2004 by China's Ministry of Agriculture:
1. An inactivated vaccine, based upon an H5N2 virus isolated from
("carrier") geese in Foshan, 1996.
2. An H5N1 fowlpox vaccine.
Dr Turner's kind response with information regarding the said new vaccines
is gratefully acknowledged. Following his reference to David Swayne's work
on the fowlpox vaccine, ProMED-mail has requested Dr Swayne's comments. He
has swiftly responded and sent us the following observations. - Mod.AS]
Date: Tue 23 Mar 2004
From: David Swayne <firstname.lastname@example.org>
I have worked extensively with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine containing the
H5 hemagglutinin gene of the Avian Influenza virus A/turkey/Ireland/83.
This vaccine was developed in the laboratory of Enzo Paoletti in Canada
during the mid-1980's with AI gene insert being provided by Robert Webster
of St. Judes Childrens' research hospital. The vaccine was purchased by
Merial and is licensed by USDA in the USA for emergency use. 850 million
doses have been used in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador since 1997.
We have shown this fowlpox recombinant vaccine to protect chickens from
highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses:
H5N2 in Mexico during 1994-5 (Av Dis 41:910-922. 1997)
H5N1 in Hong Kong from 1997 and other H5 HPAI viruses (Vaccine
Most recently we have tested it and shown protection against the H5N1 virus
The Harbin Veterinary Research Institute has developed a Fowlpox vaccine
with an insert of both the H5 and N1 genes (Avian Pathology 32(1):25-32, 2003).
This vaccine protected chickens from lethal challenge by
A/Goose/Guangdong/96 (H5N1) and A/Chicken/Rostock/34 (H7N1); i.e.
antibodies against the hemagglutinin or neuraminidase prevented clinical
disease and death.
The H5N2 virus used in the Inactivated AI vaccine is a 1973 AI virus from
the United Kingdom.
David E. Swayne, DVM, PhD
Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory
934 College Station Road
[David Swayne's valuable, authoritative, first-hand information puts
several parts of the Chinese vaccine puzzle in place. This is much
appreciated. It still remains to be answered whether other AI vaccines have
been used in China during recent years, and to obtain clear information on
the so-called "new" inactivated H5N2 vaccine, which allegedly includes an
H5N2 virus isolated in 1996 from geese in Foshan.
The background to our repeated requests for information on the Chinese AI
vaccines may be found in a (36-page) report published by the European
Commission in June 2002, following a mission carried out in China
concerning Avian influenza. It included the following observation:
"188.8.131.52. No detailed information on AI vaccination was available, such as
regarding the number of farms and poultry vaccinated, the species
concerned, vaccination schemes and type(s) of vaccines used".
Information on an HPAI H5N1 isolate from geese in Foshan (1996) appeared in
Reportedly, there are currently at least 9 AI vaccine manufacturing plants
in China. It would be helpful if a competent authority there provided the
above-mentioned details regarding AI vaccines applied during recent years
and the ones still in use.- Mod.AS]