Published Date: 2004-06-21 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome - South Africa
Archive Number: 20040621.1658
PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE & RESPIRATORY SYNDROME -SOUTH AFRICA
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: 21 Jun 2004
From: ProMED-mail <email@example.com>
Source: Office International des Epizooties(OIE), Emergency Alert Messages
Suspected outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
in South Africa
Information received on 18 Jun 2004 from Dr Emily Mmamakgaba Mogajane,
Assistant Director General, National Regulatory Services, National
Department of Agriculture, Pretoria:
Date of the report: 18 Jun 2004.
A suspected outbreak of PPRS was reported in a farm in Kuilsriver district,
Western Cape Province (34 deg 00 min 15 sec S x 18 deg 45 min 15 sec E).
The final diagnosis of PRRS is pending the isolation of the causative virus.
Date of initial detection of animal health incident: 4 Jun 2004.
Estimated date of primary infection: 28 May 2004.
Total number of pigs in the suspected outbreak: approx. 2500.
Total number of cases: over 60.
Total number of deaths: 2.
Clinical diagnosis: an abortion storm occurred during which 60 sows out of
a group of 250 pregnant sows aborted. Typical clinical signs indicative of
PPRS were seen.
Post-mortem diagnosis: interstitial pneumonia was observed on macroscopic
Laboratory diagnosis: 15 serum samples were submitted to the Onderstepoort
Veterinary Institute: these samples tested positive on ELISA.
Disease investigations are carried out into the origin of the disease and
the possible further spread of it.
Control measures: the following disease control measures were instituted:
- total movement restriction;
- full quarantine measures;
Note by the OIE Animal Health Information Department: this disease has
never been reported in Africa.
[This disease emerged in North America and Europe, roughly simultaneously,
in the late 1980s. It was first called by the wonderfully descriptive title
of Mystery Swine Disease. It is also commonly found in Asia. Its spread to
Africa really does complete the picture of a pandemic that has relentlessly
but not very rapidly spread across a wide swath of the world.
The disease is characterized by late-term abortions, stillbirths, piglets
born weak, and respiratory signs in pigs of all ages. Production losses
from the disease are severe. It is a very damaging disease economically, as
the fruit of much the investment on a swine farm is lost through abortion
The most important question epidemiologically is how the disease spread to
South Africa, as new herds are often infected when swine showing no
clinical signs are brought into the herd. But in this case, where did such
clinically inapparent pigs come from, as this is the first report from
Africa? - Mod.PC]