Published Date: 2004-12-13 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza - Eastern Asia (142): Indonesia (West Nusa Tenggara)
Archive Number: 20041213.3297
AVIAN INFLUENZA - EASTERN ASIA (142): INDONESIA (WEST NUSA TENGGARA)
A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Mon 13 Dec 2004
From: ProMED-mail <email@example.com>
Source: The Jakarta Post, 13 Dec 2004 [edited]
Bird flu virus hits West Nusa Tenggara
Bird flu has broken out in several parts of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) [Nusa
Tenggara Barat], killing thousands of birds in the provincial capital of
Mataram [South-east Indonesia, less than 100 km east of Bali].
The Mataram agriculture and animal husbandry office said that more than 20
000 birds, or 43 percent of the poultry population in 10 out of the 23
subdistricts in the city, had been infected by the avian influenza virus.
"Currently, bird flu cases are common here. Generally, the birds infected
by the virus have died, as there is no cure for the disease," Mataram
animal husbandry office veterinarian Dian Diatmiko said.
The outbreak was less severe in the other 13 subdistricts, where about 10
percent of the total poultry population was affected. Dian said the bird
flu virus had only attacked free-range poultry in those areas. "The virus
has only attacked free-range chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, and Manila
ducks, but it has spared chickens raised for their meat," he said on Friday
[10 Dec 2004]. Dian added that it was the 1st time that bird flu had hit
Mataram this year.
The virus is believed to have been introduced by poultry from outside West
Nusa Tenggara, especially from the neighboring island of Bali. Poultry from
Bali was free to enter West Nusa Tenggara before the provincial
administration issued a ban.
Besides being introduced by poultry, Dian said the virus could also have
been carried by birds from Sulawesi [more than 600 km north-west of Mataram].
The Mataram agriculture and animal husbandry office only declared an alert
early this month [December 2004] over the spread of the virus, though
domestic fowl are believed to have been infected by the virus since last
To prevent the virus from spreading further, the local husbandry office is
providing 250 000 doses of the A1 type vaccine for free, Dian said. He
acknowledged that the current rainy season would worsen the spread of bird
flu, as the virus could survive longer in the open air when temperatures
are lower and the soil more moist. "Therefore, we are planning a mass
vaccination program," he said.
However, there have been no reports that the virus has infected human
beings in Mataram, Dian added. "The virus, carried in the droppings of
infected birds, can infect humans. It's advisable that a person who is
suffering from human flu stays away from infected birds, because an
exchange between human flu and bird flu would cause a mutation of the flu
viruses, and this would create a new mutant virus, which would be even more
dangerous," he warned.
Earlier this year , a major bird flu outbreak occurred in Java,
killing hundreds of thousands of chickens and other birds.
[Byline: Luh Putu Trisna Wahyuni]
[HPAI H5N1 in Mataram represents further eastern spread of the disease,
following its reporting in Bali at the beginning of 2004. Indonesia's last
(6th) follow-up report to the OIE was received on 6 Oct 2004; it mentioned
2 new outbreaks, of which, one occurred in East Jawa province. So far, no
outbreaks have been reported from Sulawesi (see the HPAI map, as of 21 Oct
Mentioning Sulawesi as a potential source of infected migrating birds
raises the question of whether suspected HPAI cases have been
observed/recorded on this big island.
According to OIE's statistics summarizing the number of outbreaks
accumulated since the beginning of the Eastern-Asia epizootic in early
2004, Indonesia ranks 3rd, with 169 foci, following 1749 in Viet Nam, and
994 in Thailand (see graph at