Published Date: 2006-02-07 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Trichinellosis, human - Russia (02): background
Archive Number: 20060207.0400
TRICHINELLOSIS, HUMAN - RUSSIA (02): BACKGROUND
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Tue 7 Feb 2006
From: Prof. Steve Berger <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Source: GIDEON [edited]
268 cases were reported during 1987 to 1994, most from pork and game.
Incidence: 25 to 177 cases per year (1985 to 2004). Belarus accounts
for as many as 90 percent of trichinosis cases in the former Soviet
Union. Trichinella larvae are common among foxes (_Vulpes vulpes_) in
4 cases were reported during 1960 to 1969; 0 during 1970 to 1979; 22
during 1980 to 1989; 67 during 1990 to 1998. Sylvatic species in
Estonia include _Trichinella nativa_ (most common in the center and
east), _T. britovi_ (most common in the west) and _T. spiralis_
(limited to Hiiumaa Island). Prevalence sureys:1.0-79.4 percent of
sylvatic animals, and 0.6-24.5 percent of domestic animals (1992 to
1999) The principal reservoirs are the raccoon dog, red fox, lynx and
wolf. _T. nativa_ has been found in wild boar (_Sus scrofa_);
_Trichinella nativa_ and _Trichinella britovi_ in raccoon dogs.
24 cases were reported during 1980 to 1984; 475 during 1985 to 1989;
1151 during 1990 to 1994; 331 during 1995 to 1998; 80 percent of
cases are reported from East Georgia, notably the Kakheti and
Mtskheta-Tianeti regions. Most cases are ascribed to domestic pork,
with sporadic instances from bear meat. Notable outbreaks: 1988 to
1989 - An outbreak (3 family members) was caused by cabbage leaves
stuffed with minced pork. 1988 to 1989 - An outbreak (13 cases) was
caused by home-made pork sausage and fat. 1990 - An outbreak (22
cases) caused by domestic swine meat was reported in Mantani (Akhmeta
district) 1990. 3 subsequent outbreaks (15 cases) were caused by
domestic swine meat in the same village 0 in 1991, 1997 and 2000.
2001 - An outbreak (199 cases) in Akhmeta district was caused by
infected bear meat.
Incidence: 4 to 68 cases per year (1993 to 2003). Notable outbreaks:
1998 - An outbreak among students in Zharma district was caused by
ingestion of contaminated dog shashliks. 2000 - An outbreak (17
cases) in Ust-Kamenogorsk was caused by ingestion of contaminated dog
Incidence: 15 to 81 cases per year (1992 to 2004). 2 outbreaks (255
cases and 165 cases) were reported during 1995 to 1998. Trichinosis
accounted for 13.7 percent of all food-related outbreaks reported
during 1993 to 1998. Notable outbreaks: 2005 - An outbreak (27 cases)
in Riga was related to infested bacon sold in the central market.
Incidence: 17 to 719 cases per year (1984 to 1992) 3,705 cases were
reported during 1990 to 2004, including 328 during 1996 to 1997.
Approximately 70 percent of cases reported during 1970 to 1980 were
acquired from wild boar. Domestic pork has been the most common
source since 1990. 47 outbreaks (401 cases) were reported during 1998
to 2004. Prevalence surveys: 0.027 percent of wild pigs in 1998; 0.1
percent in 1993. Notable outbreaks: 1992 - An outbreak (121 cases) in
Kaunas was traced to pork. 2001 - An outbreak (124 cases, 69
confirmed) was traced to wild boar from Pasvalys district.
9 outbreaks (132 cases) were reported in Transcarpathia during 1984
to 1996. 39 cases (4 fatal) were reported in Ternopol Province
(western Podolia) during 1954 to 1979 ; 0 during 1980 to 1988. The
most common vehicle is wild boar meat.- 33 percent of cases are
associated with lard. Notable outbreaks: 2004 - An outbreak (4 cases)
in Zhitomirskaya was caused by contaminated pork.
Tel Aviv Medical Center
[The background posting yesterday included only Russia. This posting
includes other selected countries from the former Soviet Union. -