Published Date: 2006-03-06 23:50:00
Subject: PRO> Viral gastroenteritis, cruise ships - USA: background
Archive Number: 20060306.0727
VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS, CRUISE SHIPS - USA: BACKGROUND
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Mon 6 Mar 2006
From: Steve Berger <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Source: The Gideon Database, Mon 6 Mar 2006 [edited]
Some Notable Outbreaks of Viral Gastroenteritis on US-based Ships
1986 - Outbreaks (392 passengers and 30 crew, in 2 outbreaks) were
reported during 2 one-week Caribbean ship cruises; [norovirus
infection] was presumed with source not established.
1994 (publication year) - An outbreak (217 cases) of [norovirus]
infection aboard a cruise ship in Hawaii was traced to contaminated
1995 (publication year) - An outbreak (585 cases, approximate) was
reported aboard an aircraft carrier.
1997 - An outbreak (450 cases reported; true number estimated at
1806) of probable NA infection occurred on an American aircraft
carrier off the coast of Japan in 1997, source unknown.
1999 - Outbreaks (587 cases total; 162 + 425 cases) were reported
among military ships following port visits in Southeast Asia.
2001 - A total of 7 outbreaks were reported on cruise ships.
2002 - Outbreaks (2098 cases in 24 outbreaks) affecting 18 ships were
reported. These figures included a Disney cruise ship in Florida (2
outbreaks encompassing approximately 185 cases).
2002 - An outbreak (300 cases) was reported aboard an aircraft carrier.
2002 - An outbreak (250 or more cases) of norovirus infection
affected over 250 passengers on a cruise ship in Alaska, source
unknown. A 2nd outbreak (218 cases) occurred on the same cruise ship
2 weeks later, and a 3rd outbreak (183 cases) the following month.
2003 - An outbreak (247 cases) was reported on a cruise ship from Los
Angeles to Hawaii.
2003 - An outbreak (150 cases) was reported on a cruise ship in New Orleans.
2003 - An outbreak (340 cases) was reported on a north Atlantic cruise ship.
2004 - An outbreak (39 cases) of suspected norovirus infection was
reported on a cruise ship in the Caribbean.
2004 - An outbreak (116 cases) of norovirus infection was reported on
a cruise ship to the Caribbean.
2005 - An outbreak (94 cases) of norovirus infection was reported on
a cruise ship from Florida to the Caribbean.
Tel Aviv Medical Center
[To these should be added the 2006 suspected norovirus outbreak
affecting a Caribbean cruise ship described in ProMED-mail post
"Norovirus, cruise ship - Caribbean 20060305.0718." It is notable
that these outbreaks have occurred on board civilian and naval ships
with high complements of passengers and/or crew members and making
frequent landfalls, which no doubt increase the probability of
introduction and spread of agents responsible for rapid-onset
gastroenteritis. - Mod.CP]