Published Date: 2006-04-09 23:50:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease, cattle, buffaloes - Egypt (02)
Archive Number: 20060409.1065
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE, CATTLE, BUFFALOES - EGYPT (02)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Sun 9 Apr 2006
From: FMD News <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Source: People's daily online, 8 Apr 2006 [abridged and edited]
Foot-and-mouth disease threatening Egyptian cattle: Newspaper
Thousands of cattle have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in
some Egyptian governorates, the Egyptian Gazette daily reported on Friday
[7 Mar 2006].
Eight governorates, namely Cairo, Alexandria, Ismailiya, the Fayoum,
el-Menoufiya, Damietta, el-Beheira and el-Daqahliya, were reported to have
found FMD in cattle.
The disease threatens an estimated 18 million livestock, according to the
Veterinary Services Authority, affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture,
said the paper. Veterinary specialists were concerned that they have not
been able to treat this new virus.
Egypt, which is now also battling bird flu across the country, reported FMD
in March 2006 in some governorates [see comment].
Few FMD-infected animals die, and many recover, but the disease often
leaves them debilitated, according to experts.
FMD Surveillance and Modeling Laboratory
University of California at Davis, USA
[Egypt's 1st notification of FMD, dated 15 Feb 2006, referred to 18
outbreaks in 8 governorates: Alexandria (2), Behera (1), Cairo (1),
Dakahlia (1), Dumyat (5), Fayum (1), Ismailia (6) and Menofia (1). The
follow-up report No. 1 was sent to the OIE on 2 Apr 2006; see
It indicated that the outbreak was caused by FMD virus serotype A and
includes the locations of 16 outbreaks recorded between 15 Feb 2006 and 1
Apr 2006 in 3 governorates: Ismailia (8), Menofia (5) and Kalubia (3). This
adds a 9th governorate, Kalubia, to the 8 mentioned in the 1st report.
An administrative map of Egypt showing the governorates can be seen at
The massive, rapid spread of the disease in Egypt may be explained by the
susceptibility of the exposed local ruminants, which have not been
vaccinated against FMD serotype A. This is apparent from the statement
included in the follow-up report: "Routine vaccination against FMD is done
on a regular basis in Egypt using locally manufactured oily dead virus
vaccine against FMD serotype O1. Vaccination by bivalent strains of FMD (A
and O) will be undertaken."
Some countries in the Middle East have been applying annual vaccinations
with a trivalent vaccine, including the serotypes O1, A22 and Asia 1. It is
not clear whether these vaccines will protect against the Egyptian strain.
The genotyping of the Egyptian FMD A virus, and its relationship to vaccine
strains currently in use within the region, such as
World FMD Reference laboratory WRL at Pirbright. The results were included
in the February 2006 report: the strains, EGY 1/2006 Cattle 09.02.06 and
EGY 2/2006 Cattle 09.02.06, were found to be serotype A. [See
No additional data on the said strains, with special reference to their
genotyping, could be found on the WRL's website. Their relations to other
FMD A genotypes -- particularly potential vaccine strains -- are of
importance. Such data, and provision of seed material of the candidate
vaccine strains, are needed urgently for the selection and production of
efficient vaccines to prevent further spread in Egypt and elsewhere. In the
past, the Middle East witnessed major FMD pandemics which spread throughout
the entire region and, in several occasions, reached southeastern Europe. -