Published Date: 2006-07-06 00:00:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (150) - Near East & Asia: FAO Update
Archive Number: 20060706.1859
AVIAN INFLUENZA (150) - NEAR EAST & ASIA: FAO UPDATE
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Tue, 4 Jul 2006
From: Joseph Domenech, FAO
Source: FAO/AIDE update on Avian Influenza, No 40, 19 Jun 2006 [edited]
1. Jordan, Israel and Palestine Authority (as of 30 May 2006):
Within one week, Israel and Jordan subsequently reported the outbreak
of HPAI H5N1 in 18-24 Mar 2006. Outbreaks also started in the
Palestine Authority area during the period. Kimron Veterinary
Institute, Israel assisted in the diagnosis. The earliest reported
case started on 16 Mar  in Israel.
Israel had a total of 9 outbreaks, culled poultry in a 3-km radius (1
120 000 birds were culled), and set up a 10-km radius surveillance
zone. The control measures taken in that area were based on stamping
out and disinfection, movement control; surveillance. PCR testing
within 72 hours was compulsory before moving poultry within/from
In Jordan, 50 000 poultry were culled along the border as a
precautional measure, and 13 500 birds were also culled within a 3 km
radius of the outbreak. Breeders and layers were vaccinated with the
2. Iran and Iraq (as of 31 May 2006):
After cases in wild birds had been reported in mid-February i n
Rasht Province, Iran culled all 41 056 backyard and village poultry
within a 2-km radius and compensation was given to farmers.
Active surveillance of poultry farms was conducted and samples from
domestic and wild birds were tested.
In Iraq, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 were reported in backyard
poultry (chickens, geese, turkeys and ducks) in 2 villages in
Suleimanya on 3 Feb 2006. 4 days later, the disease was also reported
in Missan in pigeons, confirmed by HI test. Control measures taken in
infected areas were: stamping out and disinfection; movement control;
awareness campaign; ban on live bird markets and hunting; deployment
of mobile teams for disease surveillance; vaccination of commercial
broilers with the H9N2 vaccine (Suleimanya) [see comment]; purchase
and slaughter of broilers in poultry slaughter plants (Erbil, Dohuk,
Suleimanya & Storingthem); culling of over 200 000 backyard poultry
near the Turkish borders; culling of about 270 000 backyard poultry
and broilers (Suleimanya); and payment of compensation. By May 2006,
farmers started introducing day-old chickens to their farms. Informal
movement of live poultry is a source of concern.
[The application of an H9N2 vaccine might be related to the
prevalence of this LPAI strain in the Middle-East; it would not
confer protection against H5N1. - Mod.AS]
1. Afghanistan and Pakistan (as of 29 May 2006):
HPAI was reported in Pakistan on 3 Mar and Afghanistan on 20 Mar
. In Pakistan, the 1st case was recognised on 23 Feb 2006 at a
breeder farm and a layer farm in Abbottabad and Charsada in North
West Frontier Province, and confirmed on 27 Feb 2006. A total of 26
450 poultry were culled. Further outbreaks were confirmed also in
Islamabad in April .
In Afghanistan, the 1st case was recognised on 2 Mar 2006 in
Jalalabad and confirmed on 15 Mar 2006. As of 5 May , H5N1 has
been found in Kabul, Kapisa, Logar, Nangarhar and Parwan Provinces
and suspected in Laghman Province. Afghanistan had been importing
chicks from Pakistan. Traffic control on major trade routes
within/between the 2 countries may be the key to stopping further outbreaks.
Control measures taken were:
In Pakistan -- stamping out and disinfection; biosecurity measures;
sero-surveillance within a 15-km radius from the infected area;
establishment of an emergency hot-line;
In Afghanistan -- stamping out and disinfection; movement control.
2. Cambodia (as of 13 Apr 2006):
After finding evidence of H5N1 virus circulation in Boeung Thom Lake
Region in February 2006, collected samples were all RT-PCR negative.
However, out of 200 sera, 63 tested positive for antibody. Sentinel
ducks have been identified to test the sera every 2 weeks. A
3-year-old girl from Kampong Speu Province developed fever on 14 Mar
2006 and died of H5N1 on 21 Mar . Following the death of the
girl, samples from chickens and ducks in neighbouring areas were
taken. Of 78 samples from ducks and 17 from chickens, 33 duck samples
were sero-positive, and a duck and a chicken tested positive for H5N1
virus. H5N1 outbreaks also occurred in the week of 20 Mar 2006 in
Kompot and Kompong Speu Provinces in village poultry. Stamping out
and disinfection, movement control, and surveillance around the
outbreak were conducted. A 12-year-old boy from Prey Veng Province
developed symptoms on 29 Mar 2006 and died of H5N1 on 5 Apr .
The epidemiological investigations conducted in the area revealed
that out of 135 households, 37 had observed mortality in poultry
since 16 Mar 2006 (129/239 chickens, 128/73 layers, 14/100 ducks
died). Samples were collected from 151 ducks, [of which] 70 ducks
were seropositive but negative for H5N1 virus, and 28 chicken samples
were all negative. In early April , high mortality in poultry
was reported in Kampong Cham. During 17 to 21 Feb 2006, 450 out of
1670 ducks, 135 out of 150 chickens and 15 out of 15 fighting cocks
had died with typical clinical signs. H5N1 virus was identified from
samples taken in neighbouring village, 235 ducks were culled.
[To the best of our knowledge, the above data on the surveillance
activities in Cambodia have not been published elsewhere. In view of
the situation, when humans were the sentinels of infection, there is
clear need for enhanced veterinary surveillance and improved
reporting from this country.
Cambodia sent one report to the OIE in each of the years 2005 and
2006. Its (so far) single report this year was sent on 13 Apr 2006
(see <http://www.oie.int/eng/info/hebdo/AIS_22.HTM#Sec0>). This
"immediate notification report" did not include data on the
surveillance activities presented in the FAO's AIDE report. - Mod.AS]
3. China (as of 19 Jun 2006):
On 17 Jun 2006, an outbreak of H5N1 was reported in Changzi County,
Shanxi Province, 5000 poultry have died/been culled. Since the end of
April , wild birds have been found dead in Liaoning, Qinghai
and Tibet Provinces. As of 26 May , more than 1000 wild birds had died.
According to WHO, the confirmed human cases in 2006 are now 11, of
which 7 were fatal (63.6 percent).
There was no disease outbreak reported to OIE prior to these human
cases in the same area.
5. Indonesia (as of 16 Jun 2006):
Further H5N1 infection in poultry was officially reported on 24 Apr
2006, indicating that disease had spread into Papua province (Irian
Jawa Barat) and Batam Island (Kepulauan Riau) near Singapore/Malaysia.
According to WHO the total confirmed human cases in Indonesia in 2006
are now 33, of these, 27 were fatal (81.3 percent). Most of the cases
had some history of contacting sick poultry.
[The above data underline the need for enhanced veterinary
surveillance and improved reporting from Indonesia. - Mod.AS]
6. India (as of 8 Jun 2006):
HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Maharashtra Province on 20 Feb 2006
after confirmation was made by the High Security Animal Disease
Laboratory, IVRI (ICAR), Bhopal. The infection was also reported from
Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh Provinces both in backyard and commercial
poultry. The latest case was found on 18 Apr 2006, in Maharashtra
Province, where more than 1 000 000 birds have been culled. The
control measures taken include: stamping out and disinfection within
a 10-km radius of infected premises; movement control of goods; compensation.
7. Mongolia (as of 31 May 2006):
A whooper swan tested positive for H5N1 [in] Saikhan Soum, Bulgan Aimag.
8. Malaysia (as of 29 May 2006):
Following the H5N1 outbreak reported on 23 Feb 2006 in Setapak City,
Wilayah Persekutuan, HPAI infection was detected in Kinta, Kerian and
Bota, Perak and Seberang Prai Utara, Pulau Pinang in chickens, ducks,
geese and quail. Stamping out and disinfection; quarantine; movement
control and surveillance were undertaken. Careless movement of live
bird or infected materials via boat may be the route of introduction of virus.
9. Myanmar (as of 29 May 2006):
HPAI outbreak was first reported on 13 Mar 2006 in Mandalay Province
and in Sagoing Province on 16 Mar . Nearly 90 farms reported
cases within 4 weeks, and more than 660 000 poultry from 545 farms
have been culled in the 2 infected provinces. Control measures taken
include: stamping out; movement control; ban of live market;
surveillance. Depopulated farms will only be allowed to restock after
livestock officials declare that they have been disease free for 2 months.
10. Viet Nam (as of 15 Jun 2006):
The 1st round and booster vaccination have both been completed in 19
provinces/cities, booster vaccination has been conducted in 8
provinces/cities and remain to be done in another 16. A total of
117.9 million doses of vaccines have been used. Post-vaccination
surveillance has been implemented. Except for the finding during the
border control, there has been no new case reported since the last
case which was detected in Cao Bang on 17 Dec 2005.
Chief, Animal Health Service
Animal Production & Health Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
[From the above detailed update, 2 subjects seem to deserve special
attention: First, the worldwide decreased prevalence of the disease
since April 2006. It remains to be seen if this is a repeated
seasonal decrease, as observed also in 2004 and 2005, or an
indication of the pandemic having peaked.
A 2nd point of interest is the improvement in the Vietnamese
situation, both on the public- as well as animal-health fronts. In a
detailed report, covering the period between 24 Nov 2005 and 23 Jan
2006, not less than 158 new outbreaks in poultry were recorded, the
last one on 17 Dec 2005; see list at
<http://www.oie.int/cartes/TABA19_04VNM.PDF>. Neither subsequent
outbreaks nor human cases have been reported since. It would be
interesting to obtain expert analysis of the possible contribution to
this improvement of the mass vaccination policy implemented . - Mod.AS]