Published Date: 2006-11-09 00:00:00
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Salmonellosis, serotype Typhimurium - N. America (03)
Archive Number: 20061109.3214
SALMONELLOSIS, SEROTYPE TYPHIMURIUM - NORTH AMERICA (03)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2006
Patrick L McDonough <email@example.com>
In the USA, we have been tracking Song Bird Fever episodes through
Cornell's Feeder Watch Program. Beginning in 1988, we had large
die-offs of migratory songbirds throughout the northeast USA
extending up into the Canadian Maritime provinces over time.
The next documented Song Bird Fever epidemic occurred in 1998; each
of these outbreaks involved thousands of dead birds and hundreds of
sick domestic cats. All of the deaths were due to _S._ Typhimurium
that was not multidrug resistant and was probably facilitated by
individuals feeding songbirds too late in the spring (i.e., feeding
was not really necessary at the time of year) and the feeders only
helped to transmit it to subsequent waves of migratory songbirds. Now
here is the interesting part: the moribund songbirds were easily
captured by the household cat who then transmitted it to the
household; we have limited evidence that this actually occurred.
We also suspect that _S._ Typhimurium was also spread to dairy
cattle in the northeast USA. The link to vegetables, at least in our
area, probably could not occur because at this time of year (early
spring) there are no vegetables in the garden. However, sometimes
these pandemic waves of _S._ Typhimurium have started in more
southerly states, and conceivably there could be fruit and vegetable
crops available for harvest in a warmer climate.
Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2006
From: Joanne Connolly <firstname.lastname@example.org>
In 2000, house sparrow mortality associated with _Salmonella
enterica_ serotype Typhimurium definitive type 160 was initially
reported in Canterbury and then spread throughout most areas of New
Zealand. Isolations from birds, livestock, companion animals and
humans increased during late winter and spring. The organism was
isolated from the poultry environment, but did not cause disease in chickens.
All New Zealand isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis and antibiotic sensitivity. Canada, England & Sweden
have also experienced outbreaks of mortality in wild birds associated
with this phage type.
DT160 was not recorded in New Zealand prior to Nov 1998 in humans and
May 2000 in animals, but since then has become endemic and common.
The source of DT160 infection and routes of disease transmission for
birds, animals and humans has not been determined, although wild
birds have been incriminated as asymptomatic carriers of _S._
Typhimurium serotypes in many parts of the world. Further
investigations into the transmission, distribution of lesions and
disease progression of DT160 in house sparrows is to be published in
the December 2006 volume of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal.
Here are a few other animal salmonellosis references that may be of interest:
Alley MR, Connolly JH, Fenwick SG, et al: (2002). An epidemic of
salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 in wild birds
and humans in New Zealand. NZ Vet J 2002;50:170-76.
Thornley CN, Simmons GC, Callaghan ML, et al: First incursion of
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT160 into New Zealand.
Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9, 493.
Brangenberg N, McInnes C, Connolly JH, Rogers LE: Implications of a
Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 Epidemic in New Zealand Passerines on
Management of an Island Population of Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus).
J Avian Med Surg 2003;17:203-205.
Connolly JH, Alley MR, Dutton GJ, Rogers LE: Infectivity of
Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 for house sparrows. NZ Vet J
MacDonald JW, Bell JC: Salmonellosis in horses and wild birds. Vet
Rec 46-47. 1980.
Mikaelian I, Daignault D, Duval M-C, Martineau D: Salmonella
infection in wild birds from Quebec. Cross Canada Disease report. Can
Vet J 1997;38: 385.
Penfold JB, Amery HCC, Peet PJM: Gastroenteritis associated with wild
birds in a hospital kitchen. Br Med J. 1979;2: 802.
Pennycott TW, Cinderey RN, Park A, et al: Salmonella enterica
subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O86 in
wild birds at two garden sites in south-west Scotland. Vet Rec
Sato Y, Aoyagi T: Infectivity and persistence of Salmonella
Typhimurium for zebra finches (Poephila guttata) isolated from the
same species. J Vet Med Sci 1996;58:845-48.
Tauni MA, Osterlund A: Salmonella in cats, humans and wild birds. J
Small Animal Pract 2000; 41: 339-41.
Tizard IR, Fish NA, Harmenson J. Free flying sparrows as carriers of
salmonellosis. Canadian Veterinary Journal 20,143-4, 1979
Williams BM, Richards DW, Lewis J: Salmonella infection in the
herring gull (Larus argentatus). Vet Rec 1976;98: 51.
Wilson JE, MacDonald JW: Salmonella infection in wild birds. Br Vet J
Charles Sturt University
New South Wales, Australia
[ProMED thanks Drs. McDonough and Connolly for their comments. - Mod.LL]