Published Date: 2007-04-26 19:00:02
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax, bovine - USA (SD)
Archive Number: 20070426.1363
ANTHRAX, BOVINE - USA (SOUTH DAKOTA)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Thu 26 Apr 2007
Source: Keloland Television [edited]
Anthrax has been detected in a South Dakota cattle herd.
State Veterinarian Sam Holland says the disease has been confirmed in
a herd of about 50 cattle in Brown County. The same herd had an
outbreak 2 years ago.
Doctor Holland says anthrax spores survive indefinitely in
contaminated soil, and much of South Dakota has the potential for an
outbreak. Drought, floods and high winds can expose anthrax spores to
grazing livestock. The disease can kill animals rapidly, and contact
with the carcasses can spread anthrax to humans.
Holland says that's why it's important to quickly quarantine infected
herds and properly dispose of carcasses by burning or burying them.
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Brent Barrett
Date: 25 Apr 2007
Source: Marshall County Journal [edited]
Anthrax Flares Up In Northeast SD
An anthrax case was diagnosed in a cow herd in northeast South Dakota
on Tuesday [24 Apr 2007]. The case is in a herd that experienced
anthrax losses in 2005, and the producer has lost 2 out of a group of
50 this spring.
"With the wet conditions up there, I am assuming that pasture
flooding may have contributed to the exposure," said Russ Daly, SDSU
extension veterinarian. "Vaccine use is unclear, but my guess is that
either this part of the herd did not get vaccinated last spring
, or the vaccine given last spring did not last long enough to
protect at this time of year."
Spores of anthrax live in the soil, and wet conditions can cause a
flare up of the disease. The only real protection for cattle is
"My blanket recommendation, and also that of state veterinarian Sam
Holland, is that all producers in South Dakota should strongly
consider anthrax vaccination before turnout, whether they are in
areas that have experienced losses before or not," said Daly. "As we
saw in 2005, it is just too hard to predict where cases will appear.
Most of the producers in problem areas have gotten on this wagon
after 2005, but this serves as a reminder that they need to continue
Marshall County extension educator Tyler Melroe said the flare up is
something that producers need to take seriously. "It's kind of a big
problem because a flare up from the herd affected in 2005 shows that
conditions are right for it to flare up again," said Melroe. "There's
not any way to stop the disease after it's ingested. Anthrax is
almost always fatal, and death occurs pretty quickly. The best means
of protecting yourself is being proactive and trying to prevent it
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Brent Barrett
[I cannot overemphasize the importance of Sam Holland and Russ Daly's
advice to their ranchers to get their stock vaccinated this spring
(2007), now. If it has been wet, they can certainly expect a bad fly
summer, and therefore any outbreak has the capacity to load up flies
with spores, and away it will go. A consistent pattern in the Dakotas
and the Canadian prairies is that when the initial outbreak(s) are
slow to be diagnosed and the number of affected animals is more than
just 2 or 3, there are then patently enough dirty-mouthed flies to
infect the neighbors and the neighbor's neighbors. The Sterne vaccine
is very efficient, but the protection is only for 9-12 months. Last
year's shots won't help you. And we can safely assume that however
much Sam and Russ say, "Get vaccinated!," there will be some
simpletons who won't vaccinate their stock and then be surprised
while they watch their animals die. But if every rancher did as he
was told, we would be out of a job.
The NE corner of South Dakota was part of the later stages of the
North Dakota 2005 epidemic that year as it spread south. So, it would
be wise of those ranchers in SE North Dakota to heed Sam and Russ's
advice. - Mod.MHJ]
Date: 26 Apr 2007
From: Sam Holland <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Anthrax has again appeared in South Dakota livestock. Dr. Sam
Holland, State Veterinarian, reports the disease has struck a cattle
herd in Brown County.
Specimens were collected Mon 23 Apr 2007 and taken to the state
veterinary diagnostic lab, which confirmed the diagnosis on Wed 25
Dr. Holland reports the case involves a pasture containing a group of
approximately (50) head of cattle. This herd experienced anthrax in
2005, and while the majority of the herd has been vaccinated in a
timely manner, the one death occurred in a small group of (8)
replacement heifers that had not yet received vaccine.
The herd was scheduled to be immediately treated with antibiotics,
vaccinated and carcasses properly disposed of under the supervision
of the Animal Industry Board.
Anthrax is a very serious, quarantinable disease because it can cause
the rapid loss of a large number of animals in a very short time.
Often times, animals are found dead with no illness detected. Anthrax
is also communicable to humans as well as other animals through
carcasses so that strict enforcement of quarantine and proper burning
and burying of carcasses suspected to have died from anthrax is
important. Anthrax is not usually spread from animal to animal, and
quarantines are imposed to prevent further soil contamination by
movement of affected livestock.
Producers are alerted to outbreaks so they can consult their
veterinarians and vaccinate their livestock if deemed appropriate.
Dr. Holland reports that anthrax spores survive in contaminated soil
indefinitely and that much of South Dakota has the potential of
experiencing an outbreak.
Significant climate changes such as drought, floods, and winds can
expose anthrax spores to grazing livestock.
Sam D. Holland, DVM, State Veterinarian
[Sam commented that the single [note: single] dead cow was within
feet, as in a couple of meters, of a burial spot from the 2005
epidemic. Many thanks, Sam. - Mod.MHJ]