Published Date: 2008-04-13 13:00:19
Subject: PRO/EDR> Measles - USA: (WI)
Archive Number: 20080413.1342
MEASLES - USA: (WISCONSIN)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2008
Source: Myfox NE Wisconsin, Associated Press report [edited]
Two new cases of the highly contagious measles have been confirmed in
the Milwaukee area, bringing the total to 4, the most the state has
seen in more than a decade, a state official said Thursday [10 Apr 2008].
"We would consider even one case of measles to be of the greatest
concern, that's why we are being aggressive on case investigation,"
said Dan Hopfensperger, director of the Wisconsin Immunization
Program, which is part of the state Division of Public Health.
Authorities were alerted Wednesday [9 Apr 2008] night of a
5-month-old and a 12-month-old with early symptoms of measles. Both
children came in contact with a 23-month-old whose case was reported
to authorities 4 Apr 2008, Hopfensperger said. All 3 children
attended a Greenfield daycare, and its workers and other children
have now been quarantined in their homes, he said. A 37-year-old
Milwaukee man also is infected, but his case has not been connected
with the children.
The 23-month-old Franklin girl's symptoms started before 4 Apr 2008,
Hopfensperger said. The man's symptoms started in mid-March 2008, and
officials found out about him this week. One of the new cases lives
in Milwaukee, according to the Milwaukee Health Department. Health
officials are trying to determine where man and the 23-month-old
picked up the measles, Hopfensperger said. No other people in the
state have been infected since 2005.
The state is alerting physicians, health departments, infection
control practitioners and tribal health centers around Wisconsin of
the outbreak, Hopfensperger said. "The important thing is the rapid
or immediate reporting so case investigation and control measures can
be taken," he said.
Measles [cases] are rare, with less than 10 cases each year in
Wisconsin since 1989 and 1990. That's when more than 1600 people
contracted measles and 5 died. It was part of a national outbreak
that later prompted the government to start requiring a 2nd dose of
the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in children, Hopfensperger said.
Children should receive the 1st dose on or after their 1st birthday
and the 2nd between the ages of 4 and 6. Officials also recommend 2
doses for adults who are international travelers or health care
workers. Both children reported Wednesday [9 Apr 2008] were below the
vaccination age, Hopfensperger said. The 12-month-old just had a
birthday, he said.
Symptoms of measles include a high fever, coughing and red skin
spots. The disease can be spread by coughing, sneezing and through
the air and has a 2-week incubation period. Measles can result in
severe complications, including encephalitis, pneumonia, and death.
People who have symptoms should be isolated in their homes through
the 4th day of the rash, Hopfensperger said. A person without
symptoms who may have been exposed should be quarantined from 21 days
after the onset of the rash on the person they were exposed to, he said.
Dr. Jane Seward, a measles expert at the federal Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, said most outbreaks start with people coming
from other countries. This year , there was an outbreak in San
Diego brought from Switzerland, sickening 12 unvaccinated children.
Ten cases so far in Arizona also started with someone from
Switzerland, one case in Virginia came from India, and several in the
New York City area came from Israel.
Before vaccination began in the 1960s, 3 to 4 million people came
down with measles on average each year, with 450 deaths, 4000 cases
of encephalitis and 48 000 hospitalizations. "Measles is not
something to take lightly," Seward said. "It's very, very highly infectious."
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Brent Barrett
[These measles cases, although only 4 in number, represent a
significant outbreak, since they are a greater number than has been
observed in the past decade, and particularly as the origin of the
infection in the index case has not been traced.
The interactive HealthMap of the United States at
can be used to locate the Milwaukee area of Wisconsin. - Mod.CP]