Published Date: 2010-05-17 14:00:03
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Salmonellosis, unpasteurized milk - USA: (UT)
Archive Number: 20100517.1616
SALMONELLOSIS, UNPASTEURIZED MILK - USA: (UTAH)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
In this posting:
 Reported cases
 "Smoking" milk
 Reported cases
Date: Thu 6 May 2010
Source: The Salt Lake Tribune [edited]
Public health and agriculture officials are investigating 6 cases of
salmonellosis they believe were caused by drinking unpasteurized
milk. Milk samples are being tested for the bacteria at the state's
public health lab, with results due next week [see item 2 below -
Mod.LL], said Lance Madigan, spokesman for the Utah County Health Department.
"It's a known issue that unpasteurized milk will carry a lot of
different things, including _Campylobacter_, _E. coli_, and
_Salmonella_," he said. "We're investigating other possibilities but
that's the suspicion at the moment."
The sick range in age from a toddler to a 56-year-old, Madigan said.
Madigan doesn't believe anyone was hospitalized. 4 live in Utah
County and the other 2 are in Salt Lake County and Wasatch County.
The milk was bought in Orem and Heber at Real Foods Market, said
Madigan. The stores stopped selling the milk last Friday [30 Apr
2010]. Health officials haven't detected other cases since then. "It
does appear to be contained," he said.
The milk is from Real Foods' farm, Redmond Heritage Farms, in Sevier
County. Farm manager Brandon Foote noted the milk is tested monthly
to ensure it is just as clean as milk that has been heated to kill
bacteria. "We're just working very cooperatively with the state to
see if we can find anything," he said.
The Real Foods Market website includes a release form for customers
who want to buy raw milk, acknowledging the risk of a food-borne illness.
[Byline: Heather May]
 "Smoking" milk
Date: Sat 15 May 2010
Source: The Salt Lake Tribune, Associated Press (AP) report [edited]
Several state and county agencies say samples of unpasteurized milk
show it contained _Salmonella_ when 6 people fell ill in Utah, Salt
Lake, and Wasatch counties. The Utah Department of Agriculture and
Food, Utah Department of Health, and Utah County Health Department
announced their findings [Fri 14 May 2010].
The sale of unpasteurized, or raw, milk was suspended at stores
supplied by the dairy on 23 Apr 2010. Testing done on new milk has
shown the product meets standards set by Utah law. The dairy was
allowed to resume sales on Wed, 12 May 2010.
Department of Agriculture director of regulatory services Richard
Clark says the agency is working with the dairy to identify the
source of the organism.
[The serotype of _S. enterica_ in this outbreak is apparently
Newport. It is not specifically stated that the isolate from
unpasteurized milk is genotypically identical to the human isolates.
The following is extracted from the 8 Nov 2007 ProMED-mail post of a
CDC (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) reported outbreak
related to unpasteurized dairy products with the references renumbered:
"Raw milk is a well-documented source of infections from
_Salmonella_, _E. coli_ O157:H7, _Campylobacter_, _Listeria_,
_Mycobacterium bovis_, and other pathogens (1-5). In 1938, before
widespread adoption of milk pasteurization in the USA, an estimated
25 percent of all foodborne and waterborne outbreaks of disease were
associated with milk (6). By 2001, the percentage of such outbreaks
associated with milk was estimated at less than one percent (6).
During 1998-2005, a total of 45 outbreaks of foodborne illness were
reported to CDC in which unpasteurized milk (or cheese suspected to
have been made from unpasteurized milk) was implicated. These
outbreaks accounted for 1007 illnesses, 104 hospitalizations, and 2
deaths (CDC, unpublished data, 2007). Because not all cases of
foodborne illness are recognized and reported, the actual number of
illnesses associated with unpasteurized milk likely is greater.
Consumers have reported consuming raw milk for convenience, taste
preference, or perceived health benefits. Although some advocates
claim health benefits from raw milk compared with pasteurized milk,
including decreased risks for atherosclerosis, arthritis, and lactose
intolerance, such claims are not supported by scientific evidence
(7). Unsubstantiated claims of health benefits of raw milk for
infants and children are particularly concerning for care givers,
because infants and children are dependent on their care givers to
make safe dietary decisions for them. 16 of the 29 ill persons in
this outbreak were aged less than 7 years.
Pathogens that infect humans are shed in the feces of cows, can be
present in or on the udders of cows, and can contaminate their milk.
Standard hygiene practices during milking can reduce but not
eliminate the risk for milk contamination. In a 2001-2002 survey of
Pennsylvania dairy farms, pathogenic bacteria, including
_Salmonella_, were isolated from 13 percent of samples from raw milk
bulk tanks (8). Pasteurization decreases the number of pathogenic
organisms, prevents transmission of pathogens, and has been
determined to improve the safety of milk more than other measures,
including certification of raw milk (3,4).
As of 2004, at least 27 states permitted some form of raw milk sales
to the public, including sales at dairies, farmers' markets, or
through purchase of "cow shares." Certain states also allow public
sales of raw milk but for pet food only (9).
Given the continued interest in raw milk production, policy makers,
parents, and the public need to be informed regarding the potential
health risks posed by raw-milk consumption. The only sure way for
consumers to prevent raw milk-associated infection from _Salmonella_
or other pathogens is to refrain from consuming raw milk.
1. Gillespie IA, Adak GK, O'Brien SJ, Bolton FJ: Milkborne general
outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, England and Wales,
1992-2000. Epidemiol Infect 2003; 130(30): 461-8. Abstract available
2. Leedom JM: Milk of nonhuman origin and infectious disease in
humans. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43(5): 610-5. Available at
3. Currier RW: Raw milk and human gastrointestinal disease: problems
resulting from legalized sale of "certified raw milk." J Public
Health Policy 1981; 2(3): 226-34.
4. Potter ME, Blaser MJ, Sikes RK, et al: Human _Campylobacter
infection_ associated with certified raw milk. Am J Epidemiol 1983;
117(4): 475-83. Abstract available at
5. CDC: Human tuberculosis caused by _Mycobacterium bovis_ -- New
York City, 2001-2004. MMWR 2005; 54(24): 605-8. Available at
6. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Grade "A"
pasteurized milk ordinance: 2001 revision. US Department of Health
and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food
Safety and Applied Nutrition; 2002.
7. Leonard C: On the safety of raw milk (with a word about
pasteurization). Presented at the National Conference on Interstate
Milk Shipments, Columbus, Ohio, 12-17 May 2005. Available at
8. Jayarao BM, Donaldson SC, Straley BA, et al: A survey of foodborne
pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm
families in Pennsylvania. J Dairy Sci 2006; 89: 2451-8. Available at
9. Dairy Division of National Association of State Departments of
Agriculture. Raw milk survey: November 2004. Available at
<http://www.nasda.org/file.aspx?id=11160>." - Mod.LL]
[The state of Utah in the western US can be located on the
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at
The counties mentioned can be seen on the map of the state at
<http://www.digital-topo-maps.com/county-map/utah.shtml>. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]