Published Date: 2012-04-18 19:45:14
Subject: PRO/EDR> Hand, foot & mouth disease - USA: (NE)
Archive Number: 20120418.1105864
HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - USA: (NEBRASKA)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Tue 17 Apr 2012
Source: McCook Daily Gazette ex Southwest Nebraska Public Health Department [edited]
Summer and autumn months are typical times of the year when hand-foot-&-mouth disease (HFMD) is at its highest. The disease is a common viral illness that most often affects children but can occur among adults.
Most infections cause little or no symptoms in children. The period from initial infection to the onset of signs and symptoms (incubation period) is from 3 to 7 days. Symptoms may include: fever; sore throat; a feeling of being unwell (malaise); painful, red, blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums and insides of the cheeks; a red rash without itching but sometimes with blistering on the palms, soles and sometimes the buttocks; irritability in infants and toddlers; loss of appetite.
"We have seen some cases of HFMD within the school systems we monitor weekly," stated Jamey Keen, Public Health Nurse at Southwest Nebraska Public Health Department. "If you notice any of the symptoms, notify your physician."
The virus is spread from person to person by contact with saliva, respiratory secretions, fluid in vesicles and feces. HFMD is not related to foot-and-mouth disease, which is an infectious viral disease found in farm animals. You can't contract HFMD from pets or other animals, and you can't transmit it to them.
HFMD is usually a minor illness that goes away after a few days of the fever and symptoms. The most common complication of the disease is dehydration. The illness can cause sores in the mouth and throat, making swallowing painful and difficult. Watch closely to make sure your child frequently sips fluid during the course of the illness. If your child is taking in very little fluids, contact your family physician for further evaluation. Although rare, this disease can involve the brain, leading to more serious complications such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Handwashing is the single most effective way to prevent infection, and good hand hygiene is important. Disinfecting common areas and surfaces in child care settings, whether public or private, as well as surfaces at home will help kill the virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease. To disinfect surfaces, wash with soap and water first and then with a diluted solution of chlorine bleach, approximately 1/4th cup of bleach to one gallon of water. All common areas, including shared items such as toys, need to be disinfected, as the virus can live on these objects for days. Clean your baby's pacifiers often as well.
Because HFMD is highly contagious, people with the illness should limit their exposure to others while they have active signs and symptoms. Keep children out of child care or school until the fever is gone and mouth sores have healed. If you have the illness, stay home. A person who suspects a severe outbreak of HFMD should contact the Southwest Nebraska Public Health Department at (308) 345-4223 or their family physician for assistance.
ProMED-mail from HealthMap alerts
[Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness caused by enteroviruses that predominantly affect children aged under 5 years. In the United States, outbreaks of HFMD typically occur during the summer and autumn months. The most common cause of HFMD in the United States has been the enterovirus Coxsackievirus A16, whereas strains of Enterovirus 71 have been the predominant virus in South and East Asia in recent years. Most infections are asymptomatic; persons with signs and symptoms typically have a mild febrile illness with rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and sores in the mouth. HFMD also has been associated, often weeks after initial symptom onset, with nail dystrophies (e.g., Beau's lines or nail shedding).
Unfortunately, the above report does not identify the particular enterovirus responsible for the Nebraska outbreak. It would be relevant to establish whether the etiologic agent in Nebraska is similar to the Coxsackievirus A6, which has been responsible for outbreaks in the recent past in Alabama, Connecticut, California, and Nevada. Information regarding the identity of the etiologic agent is awaited.
McCook is a city in Red Willow County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 7698 at the 2010 census. A map of the counties of Nebraska can be accessed at: http://www.digital-topo-maps.com/county-map/nebraska.shtml
showing Red Willow County in the south of the state. - Mod.CP
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1FW-.]