Published Date: 2012-05-19 16:20:54
Subject: PRO/EDR> Hand, foot & mouth disease - Malaysia (02)
Archive Number: 20120519.1138335
HAND, FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - MALAYSIA (02)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Fri 18 May 2012
Source: The Star Online [edited]
Mild cases of hand, foot and mouth disease on the rise
PETALING JAYA (Selangor): The hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) endemic increased to 1468 new cases between 6 and 12 May 2012, compared to the previous weeks 1147 cases, but most cases are mild. Health Ministry director general Datuk Seri Dr Hasan Abdul Rahman said this week. Selangor had the highest number of HMFD cases (354 cases), followed by Sarawak (343 cases), Johor (195 cases), Penang (128 cases), Kuala Lumpur (100 cases) and Sabah (91 cases). Other states reported less than 60 cases.
Most of the cases reported are mild. This week, 180 cases nationwide have been hospitalised for observation and rehydration treatment and no deaths were reported, the Health Ministry Director said in a statement on Friday [18 May 2012]. The increase in cases had been observed since January this year, and 17 221 cases have been reported since then. Dr Hasan added that the Ministry's measures to curb the spread were to temporarily shut down premises or institutions where HMFD was spreading, and urged medical practitioners to report HFMD cases to the ministry. He also advised the public to take precautionary measures through maintaining cleanliness, taking children with HFMD symptoms for treatment and keeping the infected children away from public places.
ProMED-mail from HelthMap alerts
[Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common viral illness that usually affects infants and children younger than 5 years old. However, it can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by viruses that belong to the genus _Enterovirus_. Unfortunately this report does not identify the causative agent (or agents) responsible for this outbreak of HFMD. The uniformly mild symptoms observed suggests that this outbreak is not caused by human enterovirus 71, which in the past has been accompanied by cases of severe disease in Malaysia.
HFMD usually starts with a fever, poor appetite, a vague feeling of being unwell (malaise), and sore throat. One or 2 days after fever starts, painful sores usually develop in the mouth (herpangina). They begin as small red spots that blister and that often become ulcers. The sores are often in the back of the mouth. A skin rash develops over 1 to 2 days. The rash has flat or raised red spots, sometimes with blisters. The rash is usually on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; it may also appear on the knees, elbows, buttocks or genital area. Some people, especially young children, may get dehydrated if they are not able to swallow enough liquids because of painful mouth sores.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is spread from person to person by direct contact with the infectious viruses that cause this disease. These viruses are found in the nose and throat secretions (such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus), fluid in blisters, and stool of infected persons. The viruses may be spread when infected persons touch objects and surfaces that are then touched by others.
There is no specific treatment. There is no vaccine to protect against the viruses that cause HFMD. Cleanliness and avoidance of close contact with affected persons are the best protection.
A map showing the locations of the States of Malaysia can be accessed at: http://www.mymalaysiabooks.com/malaysia/Malaysia_states.htm. - Mod.CP]