Published Date: 2012-08-06 10:10:45
Subject: PRO/AH> Influenza (65): swine influenza, A/(H3N2)v, OIE status
Archive Number: 20120806.1229963
INFLUENZA (65): SWINE INFLUENZA, A/(H3N2)V, OIE STATUS
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Mon 6 Aug 2012
From: Arnon Shimshony, ProMED-mail Animal Disease and Zoonoses Moderator <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Swine influenza - OIE status
The undersigned's commentary to ProMED-mail's posting "Influenza (64): USA A/(H3N2)v CDC report," archive number 20120805.1228593, suggested that the subclinical or mild cases of influenza virus A/(H3N2)v recently recorded in swine in the USA are "not regarded as OIE-notifiable swine influenza."
This is in need of correction and clarification.
Swine influenza is not a listed disease with the OIE. The current list includes the following 7 swine diseases: African swine fever, classical swine fever, Nipah virus encephalitis, porcine cysticercosis, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, swine vesicular disease and transmissible gastroenteritis.
As laid out in OIE's Disease Information Summary on Swine Influenza (http://tinyurl.com/brs96wx), the reason for the disease not being listed is explained by its low mortality rate and its being a "very uncommonly documented human disease." Accordingly, it does not meet OIE criteria for disease notification. The criteria that are democratically adopted by all OIE Members can be found in chapter 1.2 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; see http://www.oie.int/index.php?id=169&L=0&htmfile=chapitre_1.1.2.htm.
OIE's definition of "Emerging disease" is: "A new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent, a known infection spreading to a new geographic area or population, or a previously unrecognized pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the 1st time and which has a significant impact on animal or public health."
A non-listed animal disease is officially required to be immediately notified if determined as "an emerging disease with significant morbidity or mortality, or zoonotic potential." This is spelled out in Article 184.108.40.206.e of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
In 2009/2010, countries from 3 continents notified to the OIE diagnosed cases in swine and other animal species of "Pandemic A/H1N1 virus (2009)," caused by the novel A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, as an "emerging disease." The OIE encourages members to carry out surveillance and reporting of the presence of all epidemiologic events of significance in animals due to influenza viruses.
A joint OIE-FAO network of expertise on influenza, called OFFLU, was established in 2005. It initially engaged in international efforts to monitor and control infections of avian influenza in poultry and other bird species and to share biological material and data to support early development of human pandemic vaccines, and later expanded its role to cover all animal influenza viruses, including swine influenza.
A chapter on swine influenza is included in OIE's Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. A new version of the said chapter 2.8.8. was adopted by OIE's General Session, Paris, May 2010 (available on-line at http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.08.08_SWINE_INFLUENZA.pdf).
ProMED-mail Animal Disease and Zoonoses Moderator