Published Date: 2012-08-08 17:22:28
Subject: PRO/EDR> Mumps - Spain (04): (AS)
Archive Number: 20120808.1234954
MUMPS - SPAIN (04): (ASTURIAS)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Wed 8 Aug 2012
Source: LNE.ES [in Spanish, trans. Mod.JG, edited]
Healthcare professionals detected an outbreak of mumps in the Aviles Health area that is currently affecting young persons in their early 20s (23 years old on average). Most of the cases have been diagnosed at Gozon Health Centre. Nevertheless, this communicable disease that causes a painful inflammation of the salivary glands has been described more frequently in Arriondas and Langreso communities, according to the last report of the Asturias Epidemiological Surveillance System. Up to August of this year , 131 cases of mumps have been reported in Asturias, approximately 80 more cases compared to those reported for the whole year 2011.
Healthcare professionals interviewed by this paper pointed out that the disease has been affecting mainly male subjects more than 20 years old that did not have mumps during their childhood -- after developing the disease, affected subjects become immunized for life -- or who had never been vaccinated with the triple [measles, mumps and rubella] vaccine that confers protection against measles, rubella, and mumps. Even so, these mumps outbreaks have not reached a level comparable with an epidemic that occurred in this region in 2002, when more than 1500 cases were diagnosed. There was also an outbreak reported in Asturias in 2007. At that time, the Health Council attributed the reappearance of this disease to persons moving towards and from autonomous communities where the disease had occurred in the past.
The Health Services in Asturias have advised since year 2000 that every person between 15 and 35 years of age that has not developed mumps in the past must get the vaccination against this infection. The vaccine may protect up to 85 per cent of immunized persons, consequently, some may develop the disease, but in a milder form.
Mumps is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets (i.e. by sneezing), or by direct contact with articles that have been contaminated with infected saliva. Mumps occurs more frequently in children between 2-12 years of age who have not been vaccinated, but the infection may occur at any age. The incubation period lasts between 12 and 24 days.
According to healthcare experts, the most frequent symptoms are the following: pain in the face, fever, headache, sore throat, parotid gland inflammation, and temple or mandible inflammation. Other symptoms of this disease that may occur in men are testis inflammation and scrotal pain and inflammation. Physical examination generally confirms gland inflammation. There is no specific therapy for mumps. Cold or hot compresses on the affected areas in the neck and paracetamol may alleviate pain. The use of aspirin in children affected by mumps is discouraged in order to prevent the occurrence of Reye's syndrome.
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[Mumps is spread by droplets of saliva or mucus from the mouth, nose, or throat of an infected person. Most mumps transmission occurs before the salivary glands begin to swell and up to 5 days after the swelling begins. Therefore, mumps patients should be isolated for 5 days after their glands begin to swell. The incubation time can range from 12-25 days.
Generally, persons can be considered immune to mumps if they were born before 1957, have serologic evidence of mumps immunity, have documentation of physician-diagnosed mumps, or have documentation of vaccination with at least one dose of live mumps vaccine on or after their 1st birthday. Demonstration of mumps IgG antibody by any commonly used serologic assay is acceptable evidence of mumps immunity.
For unvaccinated persons born before 1957 who lack laboratory evidence of measles, mumps and/or rubella immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease, healthcare facilities should consider vaccinating these individuals with 2 doses of MMR vaccine at the appropriate interval (for measles and mumps) and one dose of MMR vaccine (for rubella), respectively. For unvaccinated personnel born before 1957 who lack laboratory evidence of measles, mumps and/or rubella immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease, healthcare facilities should recommend 2 doses of MMR vaccine during an outbreak of measles or mumps and one dose during an outbreak of rubella.
Two doses of mumps vaccine are 88 percent (range: 66-95 percent) effective at preventing the disease; one dose is 78 percent (range: 49-92 percent) effective. The 1st vaccine against mumps was licensed in the United States in 1967, and by 2005, high 2-dose childhood vaccination coverage reduced disease rates by 99 percent. Adults at higher risk, such as university students, health care personnel, and international travelers, and persons with potential mumps outbreak exposure should ensure that they have been vaccinated. Further information can be obtained from the USCDC website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/mumps.html#vaccines).
Aviles is an industrial city in Asturias, Spain. Asturias, officially the Principality of Asturias, is an autonomous community of Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias and contains nearly all of the territory that was part of the former Kingdom of Asturias. The autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by Castile and Leon to the south, by Galicia to the west, and by the Bay of Biscay to the north.
The interactive HealthMap of Asturias can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1mjx. - Mod.CP]