Published Date: 2012-09-08 01:33:42
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus update 2012 - Americas (30): USA (WV ex CA), comment
Archive Number: 20120908.1284704
HANTAVIRUS UPDATE 2012 - AMERICAS (30): USA (WEST VIRGINIA ex CALIFORNIA), COMMENT
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
In this posting:
 USA: West Virginia ex California
 France: ex California, comment
 WHO alert
 USA West Virginia ex California
Date: Thu 6 Sep 2012
Source: WOWK-TV [edited]
Kanawha County health officials are alerting people after a person died from the deadly [Sin Nombre] hantavirus [infection].
Officials with the Kanawha-Charleston Health Department held a press conference [Thu 6 Sep 2012], after tests confirmed that a Kanawha County resident died from the disease [hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].
According to officials, the death is connected to a hantavirus outbreak at Yosemite Nation Park in California. The person, whose name has not been released, had been to Yosemite recently before catching the virus.
[Sin Nombre] hantavirus is spread by breathing in particles from rodent urine or fecal matter [contaminated with the virus]. According to the Health Department, [this] hantavirus has a 36 percent fatality rate, but is not contagious. The disease has not been found in West Virginia since 1981.
The Yosemite outbreak saw 8 confirmed cases since June 2012, with 3 deaths so far. Early symptoms of hantavirus [infection] are fatigue, fever, and muscle aches. Later symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, and pressure on the chest.
Officials are asking [anyone] who thinks they might be infected to contact 304-348-1088, or go to the Kanawha-Charleston Health Department website at http://www.kchdwv.org.
[Byline: Steve Adams]
ProMED-mail from HealthMap alerts
[If the figures above are correct, the number of cases has gone from 6 to 8 and the fatalities from the infection from 2 to 3, presumably including this West Virginia man. Assuming that the infection was acquired in Yosemite National Park, this is another example of people from various geographic locations being exposed at a common locality and then becoming ill on return to their distant homes. As with the previous reports, the specific hantavirus involved in this case is not stated but is doubtless Sin Nombre virus, which is endemic in California. Its rodent host is the deer mouse, _Peromyscus maniculatus_.
An image of _Peromyscus maniculatus_, the rodent host of Sin Nombre virus, can be accessed at http://www.ask.com/wiki/Peromyscus_maniculatus.
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Yosemite National Park can be seen at http://healthmap.org/r/3bLD. - Mod.TY]
 France: ex California, comment
Date: Thu 6 Sep 2012
From: Steve Berger <firstname.lastname@example.org> [edited]
[re: ProMED-mail Hantavirus update 2012 - Americas (29): France ex USA (CA), susp. 20120906.1282918]
Although French tourists might well be concerned regarding travel to some areas of the United States, American tourists in France are at higher risk for acquiring hantavirus infection; see graph [1-4]: http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Hanta-FrUS.png.
In fact, [Europe has] accounted for 8 of the 13 travel-related episodes of hantavirus infection published since 1997 and the Americas region for only 5 episodes:
Travel-related Hantavirus Infections from Europe:
1999 - A Belgian national acquired HFRS (nonfatal) while camping in France.
2002 - Hantavirus infection was reported among British military personnel in Slovenia.
2002 - An Italian traveler acquired HFRS (nonfatal) in Central Europe.
2003 - A Spanish trucker acquired HFRS (nonfatal) in Central Europe.
2005 - A Swedish traveler acquired HFRS (nonfatal) in Croatia.
2006 - A German traveler acquired HFRS (nonfatal) in Serbia.
2011 (publication year) - Two Czech nationals acquired hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in northern Slovakia.
2012 - A German tourist in Ireland was found to have hantavirus infection.
Travel-related Hantavirus Infections from the Americas:
1998 (publication year) - A patient in Chile died of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome acquired in Bolivia.
2001 - A French tourist acquired hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (nonfatal) in Chile.
2002 - An imported case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Andes virus, nonfatal) from Chile was reported in the United States.
2006 - A patient in Canada died of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome acquired in Bolivia.
2008 - An English tourist died in Chile of presumed hantavirus infection acquired in Argentina.
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of France, 2012. 731 pages, 289 graphs, 2760 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-france/.
2. Berger SA. Old-World Hantaviruses: Global Status, 2012. 64 pages, 49 graphs, 641 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/old-world-hantaviruses-global-status/.
3. Berger SA. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Global Status, 2012. 30 pages, 16 graphs, 463 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome- global-status/.
4. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at: http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps.
Dr Steve Berger
Tel Aviv Medical Center
 WHO alert
Date: 4 Sep 2012
Source: WHO Global Alert and Response [edited]
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome - Yosemite National Park, United States of America 4 Sep 2012
As of 31 Aug 2012, the National Park Service Office of Public Health (NPS) has reported 6 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, United States of America. Two of the 6 cases died.
Investigations carried out by the NPS revealed that the 6 cases contracted the disease in June and July of this year . Five of these 6 cases stayed in the same "Signature Tent Cabins" in the Curry Village area of the park. NPS is working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the California Department of Public Health to detect additional cases and to heighten public health awareness of hantavirus and HPS in order to rapidly identify potential new cases and provide treatment early.
HPS is a rare but serious disease and is caused by a virus that individuals get through contact with the urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents. The deer mouse is the primary host of the virus. The disease begins with fever, chills, muscle aches, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms, but can progress rapidly to life-threatening illness. Symptoms of HPS typically occur from 2 to 4 weeks after initial exposure to the virus. However, symptoms can appear as early as one week and as late as 6 weeks following exposure. Person-to-person transmission of hantavirus has not been reported in the United States of America.
There is no specific treatment, cure or vaccine for hantavirus infection. Early recognition and treatment of infected individuals can reduce disease progression.
The park authorities are undertaking all measures including intensified building inspections, cleanings throughout the park, monitoring of the rodents population, as well as distribution of hantavirus information to every visitor and throughout the park. The "Signature Tent Cabins" are now closed.
Travellers are advised to avoid exposure to rodents and their excreta. Adventure travellers, backpackers, campers and travellers with occupational exposure to rodents in countries or areas at risk for hantaviruses should take precautions to exclude rodents from tents or other accommodation and to protect all food from contamination by rodents.
An extensive national and international outreach effort is underway by Yosemite National Park and the park concessioner to contact visitors who stayed in the "Signature Tent Cabins" at Yosemite's Curry Village since mid-June . The NPS is asking individuals who stayed in "Signature Series Cabins" (which are numbered in the 900s) between [10 Jun 2012 and 24 Aug 2012] to seek immediate medical attention if they exhibit any symptoms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).
A non-emergency phone line has been set up by NPS for questions and concerns related to hantavirus in Yosemite +1 209 372-0822.
[The above WHO alert highlights the international implications of an outbreak occurring in an area frequented by international tourists. This report was issued on 4 Sep 2012. Since then, the case count has increased to 8 cases and 3 fatalities (see the Yosemite National Park Service 7 Sep 2012 update available at: http://www.nps.gov/yose/planyourvisit/hantafaq.htm. - Mod.MPP]
[Hantaviruses that are human pathogens are widely distributed around the world. Although our attention for the moment is focused on California, the risk of hantavirus infection is present in many localities. - Mod.TY]