Published Date: 2013-01-03 10:01:14
Subject: PRO/PL> Fusarium dieback, avocado - Spain: (AN)
Archive Number: 20130103.1479446
FUSARIUM DIEBACK, AVOCADO - SPAIN: (ANDALUSIA)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Fri 21 Dec 2012
Source: FreshPlaza [edited]
Avocados in the Axarquia [region of Malaga province, Andalusia] are threatened by _Fusarium_ fungus, spread by the _Euwallacea fornicatus_ beetle from South East Asia.
The same disease has also caused problems for Israeli growers, and now Asaja, the agricultural association, is calling on the agriculture Ministry to ban exports from affected countries.
The Axarquia produces up to 60 000 kg of avocados each year, with the Almunecar [region of Malaga] also another significant supplier.
[Fusarium dieback of avocado (and a number of other tree species) is caused by an as yet to be identified, presumably new species of _Fusarium_. The fungus has a symbiotic association with its ambrosia beetle vector, the tea shot hole borer _Euwallacea fornicatus_. The disease is a serious problem for the avocado industry in Israel and has also recently been reported from the USA (see links below). Symptoms include white or discoloured exudate on the bark surrounding a single beetle exit hole as well as necrosis and discolouration of cortex and wood under the infested spot. Fruit damage has also been reported.
Both fungus and vector can be spread with infected plant material and equipment. Disease management may include phytosanitary measures and quarantine exclusion zones to prevent spread to new areas.
The vector is also a serious pest of tea in Asia. Other ambrosia beetles in association with different fungi have been reported to spread tree diseases like laurel wilt and thousand canker disease (see ProMED-mail post 20090205.0513).
Provinces of Spain:
Tea shot hole borer:
http://idtools.org/id/wbb/bbgus/images/Euwallacea-fornicatus-side-brsm.jpg and via
_E. fornicatus_ damage on avocado:
http://www.greenguidespain.com/andalucia/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/avocado-tree-damaged-by-fusarium.jpg (trunk) and
Information on fusarium dieback of avocado:
Fusarium dieback of avocado in the USA:
Fusarium dieback of avocado, resources:
Information on _E. fornicatus_:
Genus _Euwallacea_ taxonomy and information:
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1zJm.]