Published Date: 2012-11-07 11:15:25
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus - USA (20): (ME, MS)
Archive Number: 20121107.1395949
WEST NILE VIRUS - USA (20): (MAINE, MISSISSIPPI)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
In this update:
Date: Wed 31 Oct 2012
Source: Maine Department of Health and Human Services [edited]
The Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention [MeCDC] announced today [31 Oct 2012] that it has identified the state's 1st-ever case of West Nile virus (WNV) [infection] in a Maine resident from Cumberland County. The patient, who has now recovered, presented with symptoms including fever, encephalitis, meningitis, weakness, and double vision. The symptoms began on 1 Oct . Since the patient had not traveled during the exposure period, this is considered a locally acquired case.
WNV is a virus that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause serious illness in humans, large animals, and some species of birds. Nationally and regionally, 2012 has been an extremely active year for WNV. Prior to this human case, 7 mosquito pools in Maine tested positive for WNV in August and September . Of the positive mosquito pools, 5 came from Cumberland County and the other 2 were in York County. A Pennsylvania resident vacationing in Maine in August also tested positive for WNV earlier this year; however the infection was likely contracted out of state.
While winter is approaching in Maine, the temperatures are still high enough to support mosquito activity. "As long as the temperatures remain above freezing there is potential for West Nile virus transmission," said Dr Stephen Sears, State Epidemiologist. Mosquitoes will remain active until the 1st hard frost of the season. While some parts of Maine have already experienced their 1st hard frost, others have yet to reach freezing temperatures, making it important to remember to protect against mosquito exposures.
Maine CDC recommends the following preventative measures to protect against WNV and other mosquito-borne illnesses:
- Use an EPA approved repellent when outdoors, especially around dawn and dusk -- always follow the instructions on the product's label
- Wear protective clothing when outdoors, including long-sleeved shirts, pants, and socks
- Use screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out of the home
- Avoid or limit time outdoors at dawn and dusk when many species of mosquitoes are most active
- Practice household mosquito-source reduction: standing water should be removed from artificial water-holding containers in and around the house
The MeCDC will continue to monitor mosquitoes and expects to see the virus again in the spring when it will be brought by migrating birds. The Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry notes that both WNV and eastern equine encephalitis [EEE] are reportable diseases in animals as well. Dr Beth McEvoy, Acting State Veterinarian, reminds horse owners that both viral diseases are preventable with vaccines.
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Marianne Hopp
Date: Tue 5 Nov 2012
Source: SunHerald, Associated Press (AP) report [edited]
The Mississippi State Department of Health is reporting 3 new human cases of West Nile virus [infection], the lowest weekly total in months.
The new cases were reported in Jones, Lincoln, and Simpson counties, bringing the state total to 236 cases and 5 deaths. This is the highest number of WNV cases ever reported in Mississippi.
In 2011, Mississippi had 52 West Nile virus cases and 5 deaths. The Health Department only reports laboratory-confirmed cases to the public.
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
[WNV human infections have finally reached Maine for the 1st time in the state's history. With the onset of freezing nightly temperatures, transmission should come to an end for the year. One hopes that horse owners will heed the State Veterinarian's advice and immunize their animals against WNV (and EEE virus) in the spring when mosquitoes emerge and the risk of virus transmission increases.
The states of Maine and Pennsylvania can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at http://healthmap.org/r/1m1U.
Cumberland and York counties can be seen on the map at http://www.digital-topo-maps.com/county-map/maine.shtml.
The Mississippi report indicates that after the worst year for WNV infections in that state's history, transmission may, at last, be slowing as autumn temperatures set in.
The state of Mississippi can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at http://healthmap.org/r/1Ay6.
The counties mentioned can be seen at http://www.digital-topo-maps.com/county-map/mississippi.shtml. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
[West Nile virus life cycle:
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1m1U, http://healthmap.org/r/1Ay6.]