Published Date: 2012-12-18 03:34:17
Subject: PRO/AH> Schmallenberg virus - Europe (75): internatl. impact
Archive Number: 20121218.1456595
SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - EUROPE (75): INTERNATIONAL IMPACT
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
In this update:
 UK and Europe
 USA SBV-related import requirements
 List of countries imposing SBV-related import restrictions, as of 24 Oct 2012
 UK and Europe
Date: Mon 17 Dec 2012
Source: Farmers weekly [edited]
Farm vets are warning that the Schmallenberg virus [SBV] is re-emerging this season and is "rife" in cattle herds, and there could be worse to come with sheep. "The SBV is rife this year . It seems to have gone through the majority of England in the past 4 to 5 months," warned Tim O'Sullivan, a director at Shropshire Farm Vets.
Mr O'Sullivan said he had seen a number of cows with fairly severe losses in milk production and a higher than normal rate of abortions. "We have taken blood samples with quite a lot of individual cows that have just been off colour and quite a few of them came back positive for the SBV," he said. "In October 2012, we had access to a bulk milk test, and out of 25 herds we sampled, every herd bar one has come back with a very high positive." The only herd that did not test positive was a high-yielding herd that had been kept indoors, he added.
Typical symptoms of the virus in cattle include a drop in milk production, a tendency for herds to be "looser" than normal, and a higher rate of abortions and poor fertility.
The virus appears to be spreading in different severities according to each region and depending on the weather, feed availability, and whether animals have been housed. "We are worried that the virus has spread through the country in the past summer/early autumn , and there could potentially be a big hit with sheep flocks in early season lambing," said Mr O'Sullivan.
Dairy farmer and farm consultant Andrew Snodgrass, who has a herd of 300 cows on the Shropshire/Worcester border, reckons about 80 per cent of his herd has the virus. He has estimated that about 5 per cent of his herd is barren, but milk production is down 250 litres/cow since June 2012. "The weather has not helped, but I think the SBV has been having a much bigger effect, not just on fertility, but on milk production," said Mr Snodgrass. "I think our business is going to lose about GBP 30 000-40 000 [USD 48 600-64 800] this season, and then there could be a knock-on effect next year ."
Mr Snodgrass, a council member of the Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers (RABDF), said all his clients in Shropshire and Cheshire who have had a bulk milk test on herds returned positive results for SBV. "I think the SBV is really bad this season, and it's not alarmist to say it's rife," he added. "I really hope we can get a vaccine sorted for this spring ."
Latest figures from the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA), released on 14 Dec 2012, showed that since January 2012, there have been 976 confirmed cases of the SBV virus in sheep and cattle holdings in the UK [apparently, 686 cattle and 290 sheep holdings; see http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla/files/20121214sbv-statistics.pdf. - Mod.AS].
Worrying reports from Europe about the effects of Schmallenberg disease in its 2nd year have prompted the National Sheep Association (NSA) to look at ways for the UK to better equip itself to deal with the midge-borne virus.
Phil Stocker, NSA chief executive, said: "Anecdotal reports from France and other areas of Europe suggest SBV may be causing more problems in its 2nd year than expected, possibly because livestock does not develop the level of immunity anticipated. The lack of statistical evidence means we cannot predict if we will have an ongoing problem, but the industry as a whole should be very concerned by the absence of data and what has been seen in some early lambing flocks."
[byline: Philip Case]
 US SBV-related import requirements
Date: 31 Oct 2012
Source: Dairycrossbreeding [edited]
This Alert, issued 16 Oct 2012, updates and replaces the Import Alert issued by NCIE on 21 Feb 2012 (and amended 12 Mar 2012 for Iceland).
Effective immediately, and until further notice, APHIS Veterinary Services is modifying its existing restrictions for Schmallenberg virus applicable to bovine semen exported from countries currently making up the EU, or which follow EU legislation and allow unrestricted movement of live animals from the EU, and which include the following:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (including its Crown Dependencies).
Shipments of bovine semen originating from the countries listed above may now be imported to the United States under the following conditions of certification regarding Schmallenberg virus:
1) The semen for export to the United States was either collected prior to 1 Jun 2011; OR
2) The semen in the consignment was collected after 1 Jun 2011 from donors that were negative to 2 virus neutralization tests for Schmallenberg virus, with the 1st performed within 30 days prior to collection and the 2nd between 21 and 60 days after the last semen collection. Any donors that were positive by virus neutralization at a cutoff titer of 1:8 on the initial test were re-tested negative, using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on whole blood before they became eligible for collection. Any serologically positive resident donors were re-tested negative by real-time RT-PCR or virus isolation within 4 days after additional collection(s) for export to the United States. Tests were performed in a laboratory approved by the national competent authority.
These certifications must be made by the authorized veterinarians who issue the health certificates and must be endorsed by Official Veterinarians. Updated model health certificates with the above certifications for bovine semen should accompany bovine semen exported to the United States from the above countries after 16 Oct 2012.
Veterinary Services port veterinarians should confirm that shipments of bovine semen from the countries listed in this Alert are accompanied by the appropriate documentation and certifications.
APHIS' restrictions for Schmallenberg virus may be revised as additional information becomes available.
 List of countries imposing SBV-related import restrictions, as of 24 Oct 2012
Date: Mon 17 Dec 2012 (accessed)
Source: The Czech Beef Breeders Association (SCHMS), documents archive, Doc VB(12)7688:1 (published 24 Oct 2012) [edited]
List of 3rd countries which impose restrictions to EU products concerning Schmallenberg virus (SBV):
- Algeria (restriction on live ruminants from some affected countries);
- Argentina (new import conditions for bovine and bull semen and embryos);
- Australia (additional certification requirements for semen and embryos of ruminants) [see comment];
- Belarus (the same of the Customs Union countries);
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (additional requirements for live ruminants and semen from affected countries);
- Brazil (lifting the restriction on ruminant genetic material but maintaining restriction on imports of live animals);
- Chile (lifting the restriction);
- China (restrictions on bovine and ovine embryo and semen collected after 01.06.2011 from affected EU MSs);
- Canada (restrictions on embryos and semen from bovine, ovine, caprine, bison and buffalo collected after the 1 Jun 2011);
- Egypt (lifting the restriction on animal products but maintaining the restriction on imports of live animals and semen);
- Equator [sic: I presume this is Equador. - Mod.SH] (restriction on live animals and genetic material of cattle, sheep, goats and bison from affected EU MSs);
- Japan (requirements for the import of bovine semen and embryos);
- Jordan (restrictions on live ruminants);
- Kazakhstan (restrictions on live ruminants, meat and genetic materials);
- Kuwait (restriction on bovine embryos and live cattle);
- Lebanon (restrictions on live cattle and small ruminants from some affected countries);
- Mexico (lifting restriction on ruminant genetic material from affected countries);
- Morocco (restrictions on bovine semen, live cattle and ruminants semen);
- Oman (restrictions on semen and embryos of ruminants);
- Peru (restrictions on genetic material collected after 1 Jun 2011 from affected MSs);
- Russian Federation (restrictions on live ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats), their semen and embryos, and pigs, except for breeding animals, linked not only to Schmallenberg but also to non-compliances in exports from the EU to the RF in 2011, RF requests for EU actions to prevent mortality of pigs during transportation, and RF claims on individuals MSs);
- South Korea (restrictions on bovine semen from affected MSs);
- Turkey (restrictions on cattle for breeding and fattening);
- Ukraine (lifting the restriction on live ruminants but maintaining the restriction on genetic materials);
- United Arab Emirates (restrictions on cattle and small ruminants);
- Uruguay (restrictions on genetic material of susceptible species from affected countries collected after 1 May 2011);
- USA (restrictions on imports of bovine semen and embryos collected after 1 Jun 2011 from all EU countries. Will also implement restrictions on future shipments of sheep and goat semen).
[An earlier (27 Aug 2012) EC document, namely a detailed table titled "List of Third countries that impose import restrictions to EU products concerning Schmallenberg virus (SBV)," is available at http://tinyurl.com/c8dodr2. Subscribers may find there the details and background provided by each "Third country". The following Australian text, in particular, may be of interest, since these requirements are based upon Australia's long experience with its own, endemic simbu-group viruses (Akabane):
"BIOSECURITY ADVICE 2012/10, notified to the EU on 14 May 2012:
Pending the development and approval of an appropriate, validated ELISA or a satisfactory body of evidence that SBV is not likely to be present in semen and/or embryos at a level likely to transmit the virus, the following shall be inserted into veterinary certification for importation of semen and embryos of bovine, ovine and caprine animals from Europe collected after 1 Jun 2011:
Prior to the export of this consignment, each semen/embryo donor must be certified as follows for Schmallenberg virus:
For semen/embryo collected on or after 1 Jun 2011, a virus neutralisation test for antibody to the Schmallenberg virus on a blood sample collected either between 14 and 60 days after last collection of semen/embryo from the donor for this consignment with negative results or between 14 and 60 days before 1st collection of semen/embryo from the donor for this consignment with positive results."
We are not aware of an updated version of the above Australian document; if such has been issued, its text will be appreciated.
The need for "a satisfactory body of evidence that SBV is not likely to be present in semen and/or embryos at a level likely to transmit the virus," rightly raised in the Australian document, is particularly related to countries importing genetic ruminant material from Europe.
For additional references on international trade impact, see commentary in 20121013.1340553.
SBV was discussed during the 80th General Session of the OIE, Paris, 25-30 May 2012. Subscribers may wish to visit the Session's final report, available at http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/About_us/docs/pdf/A_FR_2012_Public.pdf), in which articles 237-245 address SBV (pdf pages 67-69). - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/r/1oxc.]