Published Date: 2013-01-18 10:36:42
Subject: PRO/PL> Stripe rust, wheat - India: (PB)
Archive Number: 20130118.1503858
STRIPE RUST, WHEAT - INDIA: (PUNJAB)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Tue 15 Jan 2013
Source: The Economic Times [edited]
Fungal disease affects wheat in parts of Punjab
The yellow rust disease has hit wheat fields in parts of Punjab. The crop is currently in the vegetative growth state with harvesting still 2 months away.
"There is an initial infestation of yellow rust in parts of Balachaur [Nawanshahr district] in Punjab. We are doing extensive surveillance in the submountain region of Punjab and the foothills of Himachal Pradesh [from] where the disease spreads to other regions," said Indu Sharma, Directorate of Wheat Research.
Sharma didn't expect a major spread owing to seed varietal replacement in the high disease risk areas and also due to cool weather conditions prevalent during the sowing period. The governments of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh have been trying to replace yellow rust-prone wheat varieties with new [ones].
In 2012, major wheat-growing states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand were hit by the disease [see ProMED-mail post 20120122.1017973].
[Byline: Madhvi Sally]
[Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) of cereals is caused by the fungus _Puccinia striiformis_ var. _striiformis_. The disease affects wheat, some barley varieties, triticale, and a number of wild grasses. It causes yellow leaf stripes and stunting of plants with yield losses of 40 to 100 percent in wheat.
Spores are wind dispersed in several cycles during the cropping season. Between seasons, the fungus survives on living host plants generating a "green bridge". Disease management includes the use of resistant varieties, fungicide applications, and control of volunteer crops.
New stripe rust strains with increased virulence are emerging worldwide. These include strains that show additional fungicide resistances and/or new "virulences" (ability to break down disease resistance conferred by specific host genes). Monitoring and resistance breeding programmes have been established in different regions for early detection of new rust strains and to attempt to stay ahead of pathogen evolution.
In India, the emergence of a new strain was confirmed in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in 2009 and a change of wheat cultivars was recommended to farmers (see ProMED-mail post 20090329.1216). Further outbreaks have occurred since then (see previous ProMED-mail posts listed below), and it is not clear whether this is due to the new varieties not being planted or whether additional fungal strains have emerged.
Stripe rust symptoms on wheat: http://www.grdc.com.au/uploads/images/Stripe%20rust%20Colin%20Wellings%20ACRCP.JPG (leaf) and via
Barley with stripe rust:
Ryegrass with stripe rust:
Information on wheat stripe rust:
Stripe rust management:
_P. striiformis_ taxonomy:
Definition of strains, pathotypes, and races of rusts:
http://archive.grdc.com.au/director/events/groundcover?item_id=publication-issue53&article_id=482B978094DEDBDD18CDA8C0DCD4F6C2. - Mod.DHA]